For example, the binary number 1011 represents (1 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0) = 11 in the decimal system.
Logical Operations: "AND," "OR," and "XOR":
Logical operations, such as "AND," "OR," and "XOR" (exclusive OR), are crucial tools for manipulating and analyzing bits within a computer system. These operations allow us to perform various tasks, including data filtering, decision-making, and encryption. Let's delve into each operation's functionality:
AND (&&) Operation:
The AND operation compares two bits and returns a result of 1 only if both bits are set to 1. Otherwise, it returns 0. In other words, the output of an AND operation is 1 only when both inputs are 1; otherwise, it is 0. The truth table for the AND operation is as follows:
Input A | Input B | Output |
0 | 0 | 0 |
0 | 1 | 0 |
1 | 0 | 0 |
1 | 1 | 1 |
OR (||) Operation:
The OR operation compares two bits and returns a result of 1 if either or both bits are set to 1. It returns 0 only if both inputs are 0. In essence, the output of an OR operation is 1 if at least one of the inputs is 1; otherwise, it is 0. The truth table for the OR operation is as follows:
Input A Input B Output
Input A | Input B | Output |
0 | 0 | 0 |
0 | 1 | 1 |
1 | 0 | 1 |
1 | 1 | 1 |
XOR (^) Operation:
The XOR operation, also known as exclusive OR, compares two bits and returns a result of 1 if the inputs are different (one bit is 1 and the other is 0). It returns 0 if both bits are the same (both 0 or both 1). In other words, the output of an XOR operation is 1 only when the inputs are different; otherwise, it is 0. The truth table for the XOR operation is as follows:
Input A | Input B | Output |
0 | 0 | 0 |
0 | 1 | 1 |
1 | 0 | 1 |
1 | 1 | 0 |
Bits, the fundamental units of information in computing, rely on the mathematical concepts of binary digits (0 and 1). By using logical operations like "AND," "OR," and "XOR," computers can manipulate and process bits efficiently. Understanding these operations provides a solid foundation for comprehending computer architectures, data processing, and programming. By unraveling the mathematics behind bits and logical operations, we can gain valuable insights into the inner workings of computers, empowering us to harness their full potential.